Allergic conjunctivitis in children
Allergic conjunctivitis in children is inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eyes. In this condition child’s eyes become watery, itchy, red, and swell in response to an allergic reaction.
When an allergen irritates the conjunctiva, it swells and the eye becomes watery, itchy, and red. The conjunctiva is the membrane (covering) of the white part of the eye which keeps it moist.
In the twenty-first century, there is an unprecedented increase in allergic diseases. This is not surprising; the industry is developing at the speed of a space rocket and environmental activities are crawling like a turtle.
The frequency of the disease among children is quite high, forty percent. As a rule, it is combined with other allergic diseases.
Symptoms of Allergic conjunctivitis in children
The symptoms of allergic conjunctive in children depend on the severity of the disease. As well as on the reaction of the child’s body, which can be immediate or delayed in one to two days.
Symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis in children are:
- Due to a marked decrease in tear fluid production and size of the conjunctiva. The child feels discomfort and dryness of the tissues of the eye.
- The kid feels Irritability about “sand”, and “foreign substance” in the eyes
- Itching and pain feel during moving the eyes to the sides
- At an early stage of eye problem, the eyes become watery and itchy
- Severe hyperemia of one or both eyes
- Severe visual fatigue develops
- In the form of symptomatic symptoms, allergic rhinitis may also occur
Causes and Provoking factors
Allergic Conjunctivitis in children occurs due to allergic reactions to specific allergens. These allergens are:
- Dust from household items
- Wool and animal dander
- Cosmetic products for childcare
- Mold Spores
- Volatile aromatic compounds – paints or varnishes
- Smoke from tobacco products
- Plant pollen
- Food items
- Separate groups of medicines
In response to any of the above factors that negatively affect the child’s body. The immune system tries to defend the body and begins to produce specific antibodies. Such as histamine. This is what causes the main symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis in children.
Allergic Conjunctivitis can occur in several ways:
1. Hay fever (seasonal allergies) conjunctivitis
It refers to a subgroup of Exo allergic diseases that move according to appearing symptoms. Symptoms:
- intolerable eye itching
- Red or pink eye
- swelling of the conjunctiva
- hyperemia of the tissue of the eyelids
In the conjunctival space, a clear or thickened fluid is produced. On the eyelid, the mucosa takes on a rough shape. Minor superficial lesions are visible on the cornea.
2. Vernal conjunctivitis
It occurs during the sunny period of the year, in boys aged five to twelve years. Symptoms:
- individual visual fatigue
- feeling of an interfering object under the eyelids
- severe painful itching
The chronic form of the disease gives rise to the papillary growth of the cartilage tissue of the eyelid. There is a viscous sticky discharge. The destruction of the cornea is noted with severe changes in the conjunctiva.
3. Hyper Papillary variant
It develops with direct prolonged contact of eye tissues with a foreign agent. For example, with contact lenses. A person complains of a feeling of itching and the presence of a sticky substance.
The specialist will observe the giant papillae of the upper eyelid tissue. The cornea, as well as the limbus, are not affected.
4. Medicinal option
In most cases, it occurs after the local use of the drug. In the shortest possible time following symptoms occur.
- swelling of the conjunctiva increases
- profuse lacrimation
- severe intolerable eye itching occurs
- burning in eye
Papillary hypertrophy of the eyelid tissue occurs in the lower transitional eye fold. Besides this the lower children’s eyelid, follicles are formed.
5. An infectious
An allergic variant occurs by long-term exposure to bacterial or fungal agents. Clinical symptoms are similar to those described above.
Trying to get rid of itching and burning, the child starts rubbing his eyes. Infects itself with microtrauma, and stimulates the attachment of infected plants. A characteristic feature is a purulent, multi-colored discharge.
Self-medication for this type of conditions are not allowed. Specialist consultation is required.
Diagnosis of allergic conjunctive performed by a specialist include:
- Collecting an allergic family history
- Microscopic examination of the conjunctival sac
- Blood tests for specific indicators (IgE)
- Examination of the digestive tract
- Skin allergy tests and Eye allergy test
Treatment of Allergic conjunctivitis in children
In children, treatment of Allergic conjunctivitis includes:
1. Removal of the allergen
There is a link between the disease and the presence of allergens in the child’s environment. Allergen should be removed as soon as possible.
You will also need to carry out frequent wet cleaning. Adjust the baby’s nutrition, and change the climatic region, if necessary. Plant pollen can spread for many kilometers, so it is difficult to get rid of it.
2. Drug therapy
It refers to the use of local eye drops and ointments with antihistamine components. A course of antihistamines will also be required – they are prescribed only by an allergist. He will prescribe according to the age group of the child, and his individual weight.
Each form of the disease requires an individual approach to treatment method. The combination of the most effective treatment is the safest means for the child. Antihistamines and hormonal drugs should complete without overlapping the treatment effect.
Pain relief for conjunctivitis is best done with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory subgroup. Panadol proved to be excellent.
Allergen – specific therapy
It consists of the use of small doses of allergens and leads to the gradual addition of the child’s body to it. Moreover, a decrease in symptoms is only possible under the guidance of a qualified specialist.
Severe cases of allergic conjunctivitis need the use of hormonal medicines. The addition of the bacterial flora means antibiotic therapy with modern means from the third or fourth generation. It is selected by a specialist based on the pathogen.
Adequate methods of treatment with modern medicines can help the baby cope with the unpleasant symptoms of the disease in a short time.